Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience Nursing 2nd Edition

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Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience Nursing is one of the best of series of Oxford Handbook in this free medical of neuroscience student study about the nervous system. The field of neuroscience science nursing practice is broadly related to neurological disorders, many of which are progressive, worsening, life-changing and life-limiting conditions that affect not only the patient but also their There are families and caregivers. At the same time, patient care after a severe onset injury and trauma face a variety of challenges in terms of critical care and ongoing rehabilitation assistance. Brain damage and injury, regardless of the cause, can always have a devastating effect on a person’s ability to exercise their autonomy and freedom of function, physical psychological, and cognitive functioning. The Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience begins to equip nursing practitioners with the complex needs of this group of patients and basic knowledge of specialist management. It provides some insight into the patient’s approach to living with the neurological condition and provides the best available evidence to inform practice and nursing care.

Preface:

Here is the preface of the Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience Nursing PDF 2nd edition,

We would like to introduce the second edition of the Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience Nursing. Although it is aimed at supporting student and novice nurses, it is highly likely that someone we know personally, a friend, work colleague, or family member, may be suffering from a neurological long-term condition, and this book should prove an invaluable resource to increase our knowledge of the complex conditions and symptom management about which generalists often know very little. Reflecting on the advances that have been made in the last 10 years, while many things have changed largely due to improvements in diagnosis and advances in neurological care, some things have stayed the same. Healthcare continues to face big changes with an ageing population and increasing numbers of people surviving and living with chronic health problems. It is well documented that stroke is the single greatest cause of severe disability in the UK and as the prevalence of dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and other neurological conditions increases, there are growing demands on acute and primary care resources and finances. The speciality of neuroscience is huge with multiple subspecialties that range from acute in-patient care to rehabilitation and eventually ongoing management in the home. Complications are common in many of these patients suffering from acute, chronic, or degenerative conditions, for example, dysphagia, aspiration, pneumonia, bladder and bowel problems, depression, and loss of well-being, and, when left undiagnosed and untreated, are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. These people require a mixture of treatments and individualized therapies that relate to a number of speciality areas of practice requiring knowledge of the disease and the person. Irrespective of the speciality in which you work, health professionals are crucial stakeholders in the multidisciplinary team and play a key role in helping to assess, implement, and evaluate evidence-based care across all patient pathways. Caring for a person with a neurological disorder, whether that results from acute trauma or a long-term condition, is highly complex, emotional, challenging, and frequently involves ethical decision-making on different levels. We need compassionate, skilled, knowledgeable, and competent nurses to have the expertise to provide the right care at the right time, enabling people and their families to adapt to the devastating impact of their disease. We hope this quick reference book will give practitioners the reassurance that they are providing the best quality of care for their patient

Content of this Book

The Medical book Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience Nursing PDF 2nd edition Free Download contains the following chapters

Chapter 1 Policy influences on neuroscience practice
Chapter 2 Underpinning neuroanatomy and physiology
Chapter 3 Neurological assessment
Chapter 4 Neurological investigations
Chapter 5 Common drugs and treatments
Chapter 6 Neurological emergencies
Chapter 7 Common problems and symptoms
Chapter 8 Long-term neurological conditions
Chapter 9 Neurosurgery nursing
Chapter 10 Neuroscience critical care
Chapter 11 Neurorehabilitation
Chapter 12 Legal and ethical issues
Chapter 13 Complementary therapies
Chapter 14 Paediatric neuroscience care

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Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience Nursing 2nd Edition

 

How to do Computed tomography scanning

Oxford Handbook of Neuroscience Nursing PDF having such type of content in this book

A CT scan is a specific X-ray procedure in which a computer is used to summate and reconstruct images obtained in multiple planes. Several Xrays are passed through the area of the body being scanned from different directions simultaneously. The X-rays are detected having passed through the tissues and their relative strength is measured. X-rays that passed through less dense tissue such as CSF or brain tissue will be stronger than X-rays that have passed through denser tissue such as bone. The relative density of the tissues is then calculated by a computer and an image displayed, with very-low-density areas (e.g. air in the sinuses or CSF within the ventricles) showing up as black and high-density areas (e.g. skull bones) showing up as white. Brain tissue density lies between these two extremes and appears as shades of grey (Fig. 4.1). Contrast media may be injected to show areas of enhancement. Where the blood-brain barrier has been disrupted, e.g. around a tumour or cerebral abscess, contrast is able to pass through into the brain tissue and will be evident on the image.

Patient preparation:

  • A CT scan may be performed as an outpatient procedure and requires minimal preparation.
  • Patients are normally asked to remove contact lenses or glasses, hair clips, and hearing aids prior to the scan.
  •  Very young patients, non-compliant patients, or patients with severe movement disorders will usually require sedation to ensure that they remain still for the duration of the scan.

Post-procedure care

No specific post-procedure care is required, but the patient should be
observed until fully alert if sedation has been used.

Safety features of Computed tomography scanning:

The potential risk associated with a CT scan is very similar to conventional X-rays due to the use of ionizing radiation that may increase the
risk to a fetus or increase the risk of developing a malignancy.
Occupational exposure is monitored and staff must attend yearly
updates to comply with health and safety regulations.

 

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Neurotransmitters

Naturally occurring neurotransmitters are chemicals that relay signals from the pre-synaptic nerve terminal across the synapse to a receptor in the post-synaptic neuron. They are released as a calcium-dependent process and synthesized and terminated within the neuron they are released from. Synthetic neurotransmitters can mimic the effect of the natural neurotransmitter when applied exogenously.

Neurotransmitters and drugs:

Drugs can alter the stages of neurotransmission to treat neurological
and non-neurological disorders

Neurotransmitter receptors:

  • Neurotransmitters exert their effects on target cells by binding to receptors which are proteins on neuron membranes.
  • The binding of the neurotransmitter to the receptor causes a chemical or electrical change in the target cell; different receptors cause different changes.
  • Receptors are neurotransmitter specific, e.g. dopamine receptors specifically bind dopamine.
  • Neurotransmitters are able to exert a range of effects by binding to a range of specific receptors at different locations within the CNS—these receptor subtypes exert different effects on target cells.

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