Wilson & Wilson’s Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry 50 Volume by Damia Barcelo Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle, The volumes in this series discuss in-depth topics related to experimental phenomena, significant advances, experimental approaches, essential instrumental methods, theoretical strategies, and important applications in the field. The extensive coverage of this series also creates a broad appeal for doctoral students and researchers in academia and industry. Series editor: Dr. Damia Barcelo. Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), CSIC, Barcelona, Spain, and Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA) Girona, Spain.
Analysis, Fate and Removal of Pharmaceuticals in the Water Cycle. Wilson & Wilson’s Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, Volume 50 – January 1, 2007 also discuss., Antibiotics were originally designed for therapeutic purposes such as human bacterial infection treatment and for animal disease prevention. In addition to therapeutic uses, antibiotics are also applied for nontherapeutic reasons. The most common non-therapeutic use of antibiotics is growth promotion in animals. Although some European countries have banned the use of antibiotics for non-therapeutic uses in animals, large amounts of antibiotics continue to be used worldwide in the treatment of humans and animals. For instance, Jorgensen et al. reported that the annual antibiotic consumption in Denmark for therapeutic purposes in humans is 38 tons. Meanwhile, the annual consumption of veterinary antibiotics for therapeutic purposes was 3902 tons in the European Union (EU) and ranged from 7 to 625 tons in several European countries. In comparison, Mellon et al.estimated that 7%, (1360 tons) of total consumed antibiotics in the United States were used for human therapeutic purposes in 2001, whereas 5% (907 tons) and 70% (11,339 tons) of total animal-consumed antibiotics, were used for therapeutic and non-therapeutic animal purposes, respectively.
|Name of Book||Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry|
|Author||D. Petrovic, M., Barcelo|
Pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources and their management